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Full blood count determines general health status. It is used as a screen for a variety of disorders, such as anaemia and infection, inflammation, nutritional status and exposure to toxic substances.

ESR is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour. It is a common haematology test, and is a non-specific measure of inflammation. The ESR is increased in inflammation, pregnancy, anaemia, autoimmune disorders, infections, some kidney diseases and some cancers. The ESR is decreased in polycythaemia, hyperviscosity, sickle cell anaemia, leukaemia, low plasma protein (due to liver or kidney disease) and congestive heart failure. The basal ESR is slightly higher in females.

TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyrotropin) blood test which screens for and diagnoses thyroid disorders; monitors treatment of hypothyroidism/hyperthyroidism.
T3 and T4 are hormones produced by the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, in front of the windpipe. T3 makes up less than 10% of what we call thyroid hormone, while T4 makes up the rest. T3, however, is about four times as strong as T4, and is thought to cause most, if not all, the effects of thyroid hormones.
Thyroid hormones help regulate the body’s metabolism (how the body functions) and are also related to fertility.

Thyroxine is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland (the other is called triiodothyronine T3). Within the blood, most thyroid hormones are attached to a protein, but it is the hormones that are free from these proteins that are able to affect body functions.  This is why we measure the 'free' thyroxine in your blood sample.

CRP is a marker of infection and inflammation, which can alert medical professionals that further testing and treatment may be necessary. High sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP)  is another marker related to risk factor evaluation of ischaemic heart disease.

Lactate dehydrogenase is expressed extensively in body tissues such as blood cells and heart muscle. Because it is released during tissue damage, it is a marker of common injuries and disease such as heart failure. There are five types of LDH that are distributed differentially in the human body. Even though the most common test measures all isoforms together, if a patient has high levels, measuring the percentage of each one might be ordered from the doctor in order to determine the site of damage.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Bilirubin. These tests together as a group are referred as 'liver function tests'. They detect liver damage or/and inherited liver disorders.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Bilirubin. These tests together as a group are referred as 'liver function tests'. They detect liver damage or/and inherited liver disorders.

Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in high levels in bone and liver. This is the reason it is used to screen for, or monitor, treatment for a liver or bone disorder and is part of the liver function test profile.

Blood glucose levels are also known as blood sugar. Test is required if there are symptoms suggesting hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose) or hypoglycaemia, or if you are diabetic. Also requested during pregnancy.

Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and others are part of a basic metabolic panel. Their imbalance may be related to metabolic disorders and creates a multitude of symptoms from tiredness and muscle weakness to potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias in some patients.

Total cholesterol and its sub groups HDL, LDL and Triglycerides (TG) are used in evaluating heart disease risk.
These tests are useful in the assessment of healthy individuals as well as in patients who have heart disease or have other risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure or diabetes. They are also used to monitor treatment with lipid lowering drugs.

Urea and Creatinine in blood or urine, test for normal kidney function; also utilised in monitoring treatment for kidney disease. They are a part of a basic metabolic panel.

Urea and Creatinine in blood or urine, test for normal kidney function; also utilised in monitoring treatment for kidney disease. They are a part of a basic metabolic panel.

Uric acid is produced by the breakdown of nitrogen-containing compounds found in the body in substances such as nucleic acids (DNA, RNA). They enter the circulation from digestion of certain foods, drinks (alcoholic beverages like beer and wine) or from normal breakdown and turnover of cells in the body. Most uric acid is removed by the kidneys and disposed of in the urine.
Excess uric acid can cause the condition called gout – an inflammation that occurs in joints when crystals derived from uric acid form in the joint fluid. Excess uric acid can also lead to kidney disease, as a result of deposition in the kidneys or kidney stone formation, as a result of increased urinary excretion.

Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and others are part of a basic metabolic panel. Their imbalance may be related to metabolic disorders and creates a multitude of symptoms from tiredness and muscle weakness to potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias in some patients.

Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and others are part of basic metabolic panel. Their imbalance may be related to metabolic disorders and creates a multitude of symptoms from tiredness and muscle weakness to potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias in some patients.

Phosphorus tests are most often ordered along with other tests, such as those for calcium, and/or vitamin D, to help diagnose and/or monitor treatment of various conditions that cause calcium and phosphorus imbalances. While phosphorus tests are most commonly performed on blood samples, phosphorus is sometimes measured in urine samples to monitor its elimination by the kidneys.

Gamma GT is used to screen for liver disease or alcohol abuse and to help your doctor tell whether a raised concentration of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the bloodstream is due to liver or bone disease.

Low iron can cause anaemia, and is usually due to long-term or heavy bleeding, pregnancy, or rapid growth (in children); rarely is it due to poor diet. A high iron level can be due to a genetic condition, extensive blood transfusions, or rarely due to ingestion of an overdose of iron (usually in children).

Creatinine kinase serum levels are used to detect and monitor muscle damage and to help diagnose conditions associated with muscle damage. CK is an enzyme found in the heart, brain, skeletal muscle and other tissues. Increased amounts are released into the bloodstream when there is muscle damage.

The blood amylase test is used to help diagnose and monitor the function of liver. It may also be used to diagnose and monitor chronic pancreatitis and other disorders that may involve the pancreas. Amylase tests are sometimes used to monitor treatment of cancers involving the pancreas and after the removal of gallstones that have caused gallbladder attacks.

Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and others are part of a basic metabolic panel. Their imbalance may be related to metabolic disorders and creates a multitude of symptoms from tiredness and muscle weakness to potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias in some patients.

Total protein measurements can tell whether you are malnourished and about kidney disease, liver disease and many other conditions. If total protein levels are abnormal, further tests must be done to find which particular protein is abnormal, so that a diagnosis can be made.

Albumin, Globulin and Total Protein are used to screen for liver disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Their levels may also be altered in kidney disease.

Albumin, Globulin and Total Protein are used to screen for liver disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Their levels may also be altered in kidney disease.

When red blood cells are broken down the pigment giving them their characteristic red colour, haemoglobin, (whose role is to carry oxygen to the tissues) is converted to unconjugated bilirubin. Only small amounts of bilirubin are normally present in the blood. In the liver, each unconjugated bilirubin molecule has a sugar molecule attached to it to form water soluble conjugated bilirubin. This is secreted into bile and carried to the intestine where bacteria break it down, eventually producing the brown pigment that colours normal stools. This metabolic process taking place in the liver is the reason that bilirubin can be used as a marker for liver disease such as cirrhosis.

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble steroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc. Vitamin D is mainly absorbed from food or produced through dermal synthesis in response to sunlight. It is not strictly a vitamin, and may be considered a hormone as its synthesis and activity occur in different locations. Vitamin D has a significant role in calcium homoeostasis and metabolism.

Testosterone is  used to help diagnose erectile dysfunction, infertility, early or delayed puberty, and other disorders.

Oestradiol levels are used to evaluate ovarian function and to help diagnose the cause of precocious puberty in girls (very early signs of puberty) and gynaecomastia in men. Oestradiol (E2) is produced in women mainly in the ovary. In men, the testes and adrenal glands are the principal source of oestradiol. Normal levels of oestradiol provide for proper ovulation, conception, and pregnancy, in addition to promoting healthy bone structure and regulating cholesterol levels in females.

ECG test records the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from the heart muscle's electrophysiologic pattern of depolarizing during each heartbeat. It is a very commonly performed cardiology test. ECGs are used to diagnose suspected myocardial infarction (heart attack), suspected pulmonary embolism, a third heart sound, fourth heart sound, a cardiac murmur or other findings to suggest structural heart disease and many more other conditions of the heart.

Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure in the systemic circulation. Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic (maximum) pressure over diastolic (minimum) pressure. Blood pressure that is low due to a disease state is called hypotension, and pressure that is consistently high is hypertension. Both have many causes which can range from mild to severe. Long term hypertension is a risk factor for many diseases, including heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Long term hypertension is more common than long term hypotension in Western countries. Long term hypertension often goes undetected because of infrequent monitoring and the absence of symptoms.

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